Lori Ballen is a member of the Amazon Associates Program and earns money from qualifying purchases. Posts contain affiliate links that benefit Lori as well.
Bloggers, Influencers, Coaches, Teachers, and Youtubers everywhere are making money promoting affiliate marketing programs. You simply join a brand’s affiliate program and refer customers. When the customer makes a purchase that meets the program’s terms, you earn a commission or financial reward. Here’s a great list of affiliate programs for bloggers.
Learn Affiliate Marketing
Whether you are just getting started, have some experience, or are an ultra-successful affiliate marketer, this forum is made for you!
Here is a list of affiliate programs to explore. You can also use the drop-down menu below to sort by product categories.
CRM Affiliate Programs
Keap has an affiliate program where you can earn commissions for a customer referral.
Hubspot’s affiliate program gives content creators with business-minded followers a great opportunity to monetize their content and help their audience.
Pipedrive has an affiliate program. Pipedrive is a CRM with a two-tier affiliate program. It offers a 33% commission of referrals during the first year that they are a client.
eCommerce Affiliate Programs
PayKickStart has an affiliate program. Earn commission for new client referrals PayKickstart. You’ll be able to offer your referrals a 2-week extended trial. You’ll earn 25% recurring for each customer you send to PayKickstart. Commissions are paid weekly and marketing assets are available.
Amazon’s affiliate program is a great way for content creators to monetize their content by promoting other people’s products.
Yes! WooCommerce does have an affiliate program. Earn 20% for referrals you send to WooCommerce through your special affiliate link.
f you have turned off Amazon SiteStripe and can’t find how to turn it back on, you are not alone. Here are easy instructions to turn on Amazon Sitestripe for Amazon Associates.
Know of an online business that might need a payment processing solution? Then you can make money by referring them to a payment service provider! Learn more about payment processing affiliate programs here!
Why should you choose the AliExpress Affiliate Program? Read this article to discover what advantages AliExpress has over the Amazon Associates program!
Shopify is an eCommerce website platform. It reports an average of $58 commission paid per customer although you can earn $2000 for each “plus” referral. Here are more details on the Shopify Affiliate Program.
There is an in-house affiliate program at eBay, The eBay Partner Network, that enables partners to monetize traffic, essentially to reach millions of eBay users worldwide.
Jungle Scout offers a generous program for affiliates. The software is designed for the entrepreneur that wants to make money online by selling items through Amazon.
Email Affiliate Programs
Hunter, an email finder software, has an affiliate program where you can earn 30% revenue share on the first 12 payments your referral makes in the first 12 months.
Yes! You can apply for the Get Response Affiliate Program and potentially earn affiliate commissions by referring customers through your affiliate link.
One of the best SaaS affiliate programs you can hook up with, commissions on these software sales are pegged at 30% – and that’s just on the front end!
Aweber is a very popular email and newsletter platform that is earning affiliates a lot of commissions. It is one of, if not the most popular of its kind in the affiliate marketing space.
ConvertKit has an affiliate program. ConvertKit is a popular software affiliate marketers are promoting today. It’s a form and landing page automation software designed to build and convert through email and offers.
You’ll find the Drip affiliate program within the PartnerStack network. Drip offers 15% on each referral that converts within the dedicated time frame.
Fashion Affiliate Programs
COACH has an affiliate program within the Viglink Network. Make money promoting luxury men’s and women’s fashion.
Shein has an affiliate program. Shein is popular among fashion bloggers, YouTubers, and social media influencers with more than 2 million items.
Reebok has an affiliate program within the ShareASale Affiliate Network. They offer 7% Commission, have a 30-day tracking cookie, an $80 Average Sale, and datafeed.
If you are an influencer in the fitness fashion space, you might be interested in joining the Adidas affiliate program.
Berrylook has an affiliate program within the Share A Sale Network. Once you are accepted to the program, you can access the Datafeed, marketing assets, and affiliate links. When someone makes a purchase using your affiliate link, you get a commission!
Redbubble has an affiliate program offered within the ShareASale Affiliate Network. They offer 10% Commissions, a Datafeed, and a 30-day cookie. The average reported sale is $42.00.
Are you an influencer? Do people ask you often, “Where did you get those shoes?”. Do you have followers on Instagram, TikTok, Facebook, or Youtube? Are you a blogger?
The Posh Affiliate program is a rewards program for influencers, bloggers, and Ambassadors.
Design by Humans helps you create merchandise to sell on your website, social media channels, and Youtube. DBH has an affiliate program with Impact.
rewardStyle and LikeToKnowIt are two platforms no content marketer or influencer should miss. In fact, you can make serious money just by linking the right products to your blog.
Becoming an affiliate partner with Nordstrom can result in high commissions, exclusive perks, and a boost in status for your own website!
Drive traffic from your blog to REI.com or REI Outlet through the REI affiliate program. When a customer you refer makes a purchase, you earn money.
Are you interested in using your following and platform to promote Lululemon products and get benefits at no cost to you? Read this article to find out how to join Lululemon Collective, their customer affiliate program.
It is possible to make extra money and enjoy some added perks when you join the Kohls affiliate program. You make a commission on every qualified sale you refer to Kohls.com.
Warby Parker has an affiliate program within the ShareASale Network. This is an invitation-only program.
Nike is known as superior in men and women’s athletic wear, especially athletic shoes. You can join Nike’s Affiliate Program and earn commissions when you refer people through your affiliate link.
Share your love of fashion and make money at the same time! Join the Lulus affiliate program for fashion-forward bloggers and influencers. Lulus Affiliate Program is offered in the Ascend Network (Formally Pepperjam).
Finance Affiliate Programs
Here are ten personal loan affiliate programs that pay very health commissions for marketing support and traffic to their businesses.
The ebates (Now Rakuten) Refer-A-Friend program will help you earn rewards and bonuses every time the referred person makes a purchase.
By promoting the BlockFi affiliate program, your followers and visitors will have access to crypto interest-earning accounts offering up to 8.6% APY. The program lets clients holding crypto like Bitcoin & Ether to make money by earning compounding interest. BlockFi can also provide lower-cost USD loans backed by crypto.
Make money promoting some of the best Forex affiliate programs. Use your blog, podcast, Youtube channel, or social media influence to share affiliate links. Earn a commission when a qualifying purchase is made through your link.
Robinhood, the investment app, has an affiliate program and a referral program. You can join the Robinhood Affiliate Program in the Impact Radius Network.
Affluent has an affiliate program. It’s a great program for affiliates as it aggregates all your affiliate earnings, from any network to another. It has built-in analytics including performance down to the SKU level.
As an Etoro affiliate, you will be responsible for directing traders, brokers, and other investors to Etoro. If you are successful in getting people to convert, you earn 25 percent of everything they pay to Etoro.
You can earn massive commissions through Goldco because many of the people who invest with Goldco invest large sums of money.
Affiliates will want to consider signing up for the 30 Day Credit Repair Affiliate Program simply because of the sheer amount of advertising and marketing this company does all on its own – advertising and marketing you’ll be able to capitalize on as an affiliate, too.
IdentityIQ is a Specialized service that blends Credit Reporting, Monitoring, and Identity theft protection products. IdentityIQ has an affiliate program offered at AWIN.
Bankrate has a credit card affiliate program. You can earn affiliate commissions by promoting the Bankrate Credit Cards.
Make money promoting the best credit repair affiliate programs for 2021.
Marketing Credit card affiliate programs a great way for bloggers to earn more money. This type of affiliate marketing is done by promoting credit cards to readers. When readers sign up and are approved for the card, the blogger earns money.
The following are a list of Credit Repair Affiliate Programs. While you can join some credit repair affiliate programs with the brand itself, others can be found in affiliate networks such as ShareASale, CJ.com, and Awin.
Acorns has an affiliate program that pays a flat fee per referral that you send through your special link.
Food Affiliate Programs
Freshly offers healthy, whole ingredient meals. The meals are shipped directly to customers in environmentally-friendly packages. According to the Flex Offers program, the affiliate publisher earns $32 per Freshly Fit sale and $19.2 per order on the other sales.
We’ll give you the scoop on the best Coffee Affiliate programs and hearty commissions.
Daily Harvest has an affiliate program within the ShareASale Network. The Ambassadoor program offers $10 per sale that meets the program terms.
Butcher Box, the #1 source for grass-fed beef has an affiliate program within the Shareasale Affiliate network.
Heath and Fitness Affiliate Programs
The number of affiliate programs within the supplement niche is vast enough to suit any affiliate.
Savage Barbell has an affiliate program within the AWIN Affiliate Network. Savage Barbell was created in 2014 and became an online store in 2015. Today, they ship to more than 100 countries worldwide. They specialize in performance wear. This fitness company is based out of California. Here are the details on the Savage Barbell affiliate program.
Fitbit has an affiliate program. Fitbit would be best for bloggers and social media influencers in the health and fitness space.
1st Phorm Affiliate Program gives influencers and promoters in the health industry the opportunity to earn commissions. While they claim a qualified Legionnaire can earn $1000 per month, the details are provided with approval. Apply Here
Yoga International has an affiliate program offered within the FlexOffers network. Yoga International is a video streaming service that provides professional yoga classes led by world-renowned teachers. Their content also includes meditation videos.
Horizon Fitness makes ellipticals, exercise bikes, and treadmills. They also offer the Sprint 8 HIIT training program that boasts a 27% reduction in body fat in two months with three 20-minute workouts per week. They also offer financing at 0% APR on their equipment.
Founded in 1986, Nautilus is known for its cardio equipment – including bikes, ellipticals, and treadmills – made for personal and commercial use. Payout: 2.4% of sales Cookie duration: 7-days Flexoffers manages the Nautilus affiliate program.
Bowflex has an affiliate program with FlexOffers that offers a 2.4% commission. Bowflex is a widely recognized brand that has sold (and continues to sell) well since 1986. Their product range includes cardio and strength training equipment for both personal and commercial use.
MYX Fitness has an affiliate program. You can earn commissions by using your influence to refer customers to the brand. Use your affiliate link to promote the program on your social media profile, blog, or Youtube channel.
LifeFitness is known for its premium exercise equipment that includes cardio and strength training equipment. Their product brands include SCIFIT and Hammer Strength, and both brands are available for commercial and personal use.
Noom offers a 30-day cookie tracking and incentives for trial memberships, making it a worthwhile affiliate partner.
Serious about making big money as an affiliate in the online dispensaries space? These are the programs you’ll want to hook up with ASAP!
Use these top weight loss affiliate programs for to start making money in the weight loss world right away!
Are you interested in using your following and platform to promote Lululemon products and get benefits at no cost to you? Read this article to find out how to join Lululemon Collective, their customer affiliate program.
Naked Nutrition has an affiliate program within the Share-A-Sale Network. From Grass-Fed Whey Protein to Pea Protein Powder to Organic Brown Rice Protein Powder, Naked Nutrition provides the purest supplements.
Home and Garden Affiliate programs
Target affiliates network is primarily designed for content creators and bloggers who are based in the United States and are well-positioned to be selling Target products.
Disney has an affiliate program. ShopDisney.com is Disney’s premier retailer, offering a distinctive Disney retail experience that showcases all the top Disney branded merchandise.
Marshalls has an affiliate program. When you promote the Marshalls brand, your visitors will gain access to family fashion as well as home goods offered at discounted prices.
Are you interested in the best cleaning product affiliate programs ? Then you’re in the right place!
Michaels Stores has an affiliate program. Check inside the Flex Offers Network along with the Sovrn Affiliate Network (formally Viglink) to verify commissions.
Mrs. Meyer’s Affiliate Program is offered at the ShareASale Network. It’s under the ePantry company that houses many all-natural home cleaning products. You can earn $5 per sale, $25 off your 1st ePantry order, as well as a free Mrs. Meyer’s hand soap!
You can make money online with the SimpliSafe Home Security affiliate program. If you influence buying decisions related to home security, cameras, alarms, etc. you can bet paid .26 cents per click through the Flex Offers Affiliate Network.
Dyson has an affiliate program offered within the Rakuten Affiliate Network as well as Flex Offers. It pays 2% commission (or less) depending on the network.
Wayfair has an affiliate program within the CJ Affiliate Network. You can earn up to 7% Commission and the average order size is $300.
Care.com has an affiliate program inside the CJ.com Affiliate Network. They offer $15 per sale plus $1 per membership lead with a 30-day cookie.
Neato Robotics has an affiliate program with the Share A Sale Network. Here are more details on how you can make money with the Neato Robotics affiliate program.
People in the craft niche rejoice. Hobby Lobby, one of the world’s largest craft supply retailers, has launched a new affiliate program.
Brooklinen has an affiliate program within the ShareASale Affiliate Network. They offer a 1% Commission. Brooklinen Affiliate Program Brooklinen Affiliate Program Affiliate Program Benefits: Average Order Value of over $180 A conversion rate of 6.65% Auto-deposit Consistently a top-ranked ShareASale program
I recently partnered with the ergonofis team to offer high quality stand up desks and earn an affiliate commission. Here are the details about the commissions you can make with the Ergonofis Affiliate Program.
Aquasana has an affiliate program with the Rakuten Affiliate Network. Aquasana uses award-winning filtering technology to offer a maximum reduction in water contaminants while beneficial minerals remain.
As a real estate affiliate, you can earn an affiliate commission on home sales without a licensed real estate agent or becoming a real estate investor.
Costco offers an affiliate program – let’s check out the details and the pros and cons.
There are two affiliate programs available through Instacart right now. The Instacart customer affiliate program lets you refer new customers to Instacart. Your other option is to refer new shopper-partners to Instacart
Lowe’s Affiliate Program is offered inside the CJ.com Affiliate Network as well as Sovrn (formally viglink). Log into these networks and search for merchant to join the affiliate program.
While Home Depot doesn’t offer a high paying affiliate program, it does offer a very small commission if someone purchases the day they click your affiliate link.
Etsy has an affiliate program with the AWIN Affiliate Network. Upon acceptance to the program, you’ll receive access to creatives, affiliate links, and data feeds. Etsy has an affiliate program with the AWIN Affiliate Network. Upon acceptance to othe program, you’ll receive access to creatives, affiliate links, and data feeds. Apply at AWIN.
Best Buy has an affiliate program. You can earn commissions on sales that you generate for Best Buy through your affiliate link. Sign Up inside your Impact Radius Network.
Jewelry Affiliate Programs
Angara has an Affiliate Program within the Rakuten Affiliate Network. Agara is the place for fine gemstone jewelry and has had a feature in Forbes and America’s Next Top Model! With Angara’s affiliate program, you can make 5% commissions on orders that average $1000 average!
TraxNYC has an affiliate program within the ShareASale Affiliate Network. TraxNYC offers fine jewelry at near wholesale prices. Once you are accepted into the affiliate program, you’ll have access to over 6,800 products.
Network Marketing is not the only way to make money with Stella & Dot. By joining the Share A Sale Network and applying to the Stella & Dot Affiliate Program, you can earn commissions on more than 1,700 products in the data feed.
Online Course Builder Affiliate Programs
Creativebug teaches its students how to crochet, bake, knit, sew, paint, and more in a virtual class format. Creativebug has an affiliate program that pays $8 per sale plus 20-30% commission on recurring subscriptions. It offers a 30-day cookie window plus access to the website.
Udemy does have an affiliate program. Here is some information to help you get started as a Udemy Affiliate.
(Almost) Everything you need to know about the My Lead System Pro affiliate program. Is it all that it’s cracked up to be – or is it a total scam? Find out right now!
Be a part of the Kajabi Affiliate Program and earn a 30% lifetime commission. Learn how with our comprehensive guide!
Thinkific has an affiliate program within the ShareASale Network. You can earn 20% per sale as a one time payout. You’ll get your special link and marketing assets through the affiliate network, ShareASale. The reported conversion rate is more than 38% with an average order of $87.59. Thinkific offers a generous 90-day Tracking Cookie as well.
Earn up to 45% Commission on 1,000+ courses and Specializations offered at Coursera, an e-learning platform. Here are some details about the Coursera affiliate program.
Landing Page Affiliate Programs
OptinMonster has an affiliate program with the ShareASale Network. 20% of the sale is the standard affiliate commission while special offers can increase this amount.
Kartra has an affiliate program. It pays 40% recurring of every sale and recurring payment while that customer remains a paying subscriber.
Because of the numerous products that ClickFunnel provides, there is also an excellent opportunity for those interested in affiliate marketing.
Another great recurring commission offer is the Leadpages affiliate program. Earn 30% recurring commission the entire time your referral remains a Leadpages paying customer.
Deadline Funnel has an affiliate program. For each referral who creates an account at Deadline Funnel, you earn a recurring 33% of each payment Deadline Funnel receives from that customer.
Podcast Affiliate Programs
Buzzsprout offers what they call an affiliate program that offers you and the person you send to Buzzsprout a $20 Amazon.com gift card when they upgrade to one of the paid plans.
SEO Affiliate Programs
Lasso has an affiliate program that offers a one-time, $49.00 commission when the first payment from a referred customer is received.
Spyfu is a popular keyword tool where you can look up information about a keyword or topic that can lend to marketing decisions. The Spyfu affiliate program offers recurring commissions with a 40% payout for life.
SEOPress has an affiliate program. Because it is a subscription service, you have the opportunity to earn recurring commissions.
Long Tail Pro has an affiliate program with the Share A Sale Network that includes a two-tier (sub-affiliate) link as well. Promote Long Tail Pro and earn through their affiliate program.
SEMrush is an SEO Audit tool and so much more. Competitive research, rank tracking, SEO Audits, Content Calendar, Content SEO Template, Backlink Reports, and more. SEMrush has an affiliate program.
The Surfer SEO Affiliate Program offers a 30% Commission structure. When someone makes a purchase of the Surfer SEO Software after clicking your link, and within the tracking period, you’ll receive a commission.
Social Media Affiliate Programs
MissingLettr is a social media posting tool that sets multiple messages, images, and links to be distributed to LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter.
Coschedule does not have a public affiliate program. Instead, take a look at MissingLttr. Here are some other social media affiliate programs as well. Coschedule does not have a public affiliate program. Instead, take a look at MissingLttr. Here are some other social media affiliate programs as well.
Social Snap has an affiliate program. It offers 20% on your converted referrals. Social Snap is a WordPress Plugin that improves social sharing options.
Social Bee has an affiliate program with Partner Stack that pays 20% commissions.
If you are an influencer, coach, marketing agency, consultant, Youtuber, pinner, blogger, the Tailwind Affiliate Program might be right for you.
You can earn 30% Recurring Commissions for SocialPilot Subscription Sales! With the Social Pilot affiliate program, you’ll benefit from each monthly subscription. This is how I built my 6-figure affiliate business, on the back of recurring SaaS (software as a service) subscriptions.
MeetEdgar has an affiliate program with the First Promoter Affiliate Network. You’ll learn $5.00 to $10 for referring customers to MeetEdgar. When you refer to 10 customers, you can earn a $50 reward. Annual subscriptions earn $20. See Program Details for current payouts.
Tap Bio allows you to make a website all from the comfort of your smartphone. Tap Bio has an affiliate program with the Tap Affiliate Network.
ContactInBio has an affiliate program offering a 25% commission on referred customers. Simply join ContactInBio and click Affiliate to grab your special link. Payout is through Paypal.
Viraltag is a software that helps you generate more traffic through social media images. As an affiliate, you can earn 20% recurring rather than the $30 referral that is offered as a standard to account holders.
Travel Affiliate Programs
As an Airbnb affiliate, you’ll be able to post an Airbnb listing on your site. You’ll earn a commission for each booking that results from your promotional link.
Viator has an affiliate program that is ideal for travel bloggers and those in the travel industry. Viator affiliates and travel agents can build, customize, and make money with the Viator widget builder which integrates seamlessly into websites.
Through the Lonely Planet affiliate program, affiliates will earn a 15 percent commission on all digital and print book purchases that are made using the affiliate link. In addition, affiliates will earn a 12 percent commission on any travel guides that are sold using the affiliate link.
Those who want to make money by promoting travel products on Wego should take a look at this travel affiliate program. Wego pays affiliate marketers based on clicks. In essence, this is a commission per click (CPC) type of model.
STA pays great affiliate commissions on flights and tours. Their commission program provides a 10 percent commission on tours, SIM cards, ISIC cards, and other products. Affiliates also make $4 on every flight that is booked using the affiliate link.
Through the Trip Advisor affiliate program, it is possible to earn as much as an 80 percent affiliate commission through this program. Yes, this means that the affiliate could make more money than Trip Advisor on a given sale.
An as Agoda affiliate, marketers are able to earn a five percent commission for each transaction made using an affiliate link. For example, a hotel booking of $400 will earn $20 in commissions as an affiliate.
Cruise Direct has a strong affiliate program that provides affiliates with a chance to earn thousands of dollars.
An affiliate with Booking.com could earn some of the largest commissions in the entire world of affiliate marketing. There is a chance for those who register with the Booking.com affiliate program to earn up to a 25 percent commission on their purchases.
Hotels Combined is one of the most popular platforms for those looking to shop and save on hotels. Thousands of people around the world use Hotels Combined on a regular basis to book their hotels, helping them save money. In addition, Hotels Combined has one of the best deals for affiliate promoters.
Do you think you can do a good job at promoting live events? Then why not sign up for Ticketmaster’s affiliate program! Learn all you need to know about their program in this article!
Expedia offers an affiliate program. Expedia provides a dedicated call center solely for its affiliates. This helps affiliates get more information on various deals and discounts that they can use to improve their marketing.
WANDRD is a family-owned and operated business that creates the Ultimate Pack for Photographers, Travelers, Commuters, and Adventure Enthusiasts. WANDRD has an affiliate program within the ShareASale Network.
Video and Live Streaming Affiliate Programs
Be.Live has an affiliate program with Tap Affiliate offering a 20% commission on referral link sales. They offer a Two-Tier Affiliate Program whereas you can benefit from sub-affiliate sign-ups. Program Details 20% Recurring CommissionTwo Tier Sub-Affiliate Link pays 10%45-day Tracking Cookie Apply To Become a Be.Live Affiliate
Tubebuddy has an affiliate program. It offers a scaling commission based on a number of sign-ups with up to 50% commission recurring.
BeLive is software that allows you to Live Stream to Youtube and Facebook with Branding. Here is what you need to know about becoming a BeLive Affiliate Partner.
Interested in promoting Camtasia or Snagit? Enable your customers to capture and record their computer-based activity, and earn commission by promoting Camtasia by TechSmith!
Twitch has an affiliate program. Influencers, Bloggers, and Youtuber’s can earn affiliate commissions by promoting the software to their viewers.
WordPress Hosting & Website Affiliate Programs
I stumbled upon Thrive Themes doing research for my WordPress Blog. I kept coming across videos, blogs, and tools that led me back to Thrive Themes. Finally, I signed up for their affiliate program. An exciting one, it is!
Hostgator offers a tiered affiliate program. The more customers in a month that you refer, the more you can earn.
DreamHost has an affiliate program that pays up to $200 per referral. If you are a blogger, influencer, or Youtuber, you might influence buying decisions. You can earn a commission by referring customers to DreamHost using your affiliate link.
Beaver Builder has an affiliate program. Any blogger, Youtuber, or influencer that creates software reviews or teaches the process in using them, would be a great candidate. Earn commissions when someone makes a qualifying purchase with your affiliate link.
Bloggers have figured out that there are many ways to make money with a blog. Becoming a WP Engine Affiliate Partner is one of them. The more referrals you send, the more you earn.
Not all WordPress hosting affiliate programs or commission structures are the same. It’s important to evaluate the payment structures, payout methods, and how they might scale when you send a lot of buyers through your links.
WPForms has an affiliate program with the ShareASale Network. WPForms is a form maker software that works with WordPress.
Squarespace has an affiliate program with the Impact network. Early affiliates can earn $100 – $200 per sign up from customers that make a purchase within 45-days of clicking their affiliate link. It’s a first-click model.
Bluehost has an affiliate program. They offer a $65.00 one-time bounty when someone signs up within the designated time-frame using your affiliate link. They will also run promotions increasing this bounty.
17th Avenue is a clever web design studio focusing on feminine WordPress themes for bloggers. 17th Avenue has an affiliate program.
Flywheel has an affiliate program. They call it their referral program. As a “friend of flywheel’, or approved affiliate, you can earn up to $500 per referral for referring a new customer to the WordPress hosting company.
As a Kinsta affiliate, you’ll earn a commission with each referral. Depending on the plan tier chosen by your referral, you’ll receive up to $500 one-time payment PLUS a 10% monthly commission for the lifetime of the referred customer.
In short, Webflow is a web design tool, CMS, and hosting platform. Webflow has an affiliate program with Refersion that pays 50% of the monthly subscription for 12 months.
An affiliate program is offered by a brand to influencers and bloggers. It offers marketing assets and affiliate links for the blogger or youtuber to use with their content. When a purchase is made through the blogger’s link, and it meets the program terms, the blogger is paid a financial reward.